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Newfoundland Breed Standard

Working Group

General Appearance
The Newfoundland is a sweet-dispositioned dog that acts neither dull nor ill-tempered. He is a devoted companion. A multipurpose dog, at home on land and in water, the Newfoundland is capable of draft work and possesses natural lifesaving abilities. The Newfoundland is a large, heavily coated, well balanced dog that is deep-bodied, heavily boned, muscular, and strong. A good specimen of the breed has dignity and proud head carriage. The following description is that of the ideal Newfoundland. Any deviation from this ideal is to be penalized to the extent of the deviation. Structural and movement faults common to all working dogs are as undesirable in the Newfoundland as in any other breed, even though they are not specifically mentioned herein.

Size, Proportion, Substance
Average height for adult dogs is 28 inches, for adult bitches, 26 inches. Approximate weight of adult dogs ranges from 130 to 150 pounds, adult bitches from 100 to 120 pounds. The dog's appearance is more massive throughout than the bitch's. Large size is desirable, but never at the expense of balance, structure, and correct gait. The Newfoundland is slightly longer than tall when measured from the point of shoulder to point of buttocks and from withers to ground. He is a dog of considerable substance which is determined by spring of rib, strong muscle, and heavy bone.

The head is massive, with a broad skull, slightly arched crown, and strongly developed occipital bone. Cheeks are well developed. Eyes are dark brown. (Browns and Grays may have lighter eyes and should be penalized only to the extent that color affects expression.) They are relatively small, deep-set, and spaced wide apart. Eyelids fit closely with no inversion. Ears are relatively small and triangular with rounded tips. They are set on the skull level with, or slightly above, the brow and lie close to the head. When the ear is brought forward, it reaches to the inner corner of the eye on the same side. Expression is soft and reflects the characteristics of the breed: benevolence, intelligence, and dignity. Forehead and face are smooth and free of wrinkles. Slope of the stop is moderate but, because of the well developed brow, it may appear abrupt in profile. The muzzle is clean-cut, broad throughout its length, and deep. Depth and length are approximately equal, the length from tip of nose to stop being less than that from stop to occiput. The top of the muzzle is rounded, and the bridge, in profile, is straight or only slightly arched. Teeth meet in a scissors or level bite. Dropped lower incisors, in an otherwise normal bite, are not indicative of a skeletal malocclusion and should be considered only a minor deviation.

Neck, Topline, Body
The neck is strong and well set on the shoulders and is long enough for proud head carriage. The back is strong, broad, and muscular and is level from just behind the withers to the croup. The chest is full and deep with the brisket reaching at least down to the elbows. Ribs are well sprung, with the anterior third of the rib cage tapered to allow elbow clearance. The flank is deep. The croup is broad and slopes slightly.

Tail set follows the natural line of the croup. The tail is broad at the base and strong. It has no kinks, and the distal bone reaches to the hock. When the dog is standing relaxed, its tail hangs straight or with a slight curve at the end. When the dog is in motion or excited, the tail is carried out, but it does not curl over the back.

Shoulders are muscular and well laid back. Elbows lie directly below the highest point of the withers. Forelegs are muscular, heavily boned, straight, and parallel to each other, and the elbows point directly to the rear. The distance from elbow to ground equals about half the dog's height. Pasterns are strong and slightly sloping. Feet are proportionate to the body in size, webbed, and cat foot in type. Dewclaws may be removed.

The rear assembly is powerful, muscular, and heavily boned. Viewed from the rear, the legs are straight and parallel. Viewed from the side, the thighs are broad and fairly long. Stifles and hocks are well bent and the line from hock to ground is perpendicular. Hocks are well let down. Hind feet are similar to the front feet. Dewclaws should be removed.

The adult Newfoundland has a flat, water-resistant, double coat that tends to fall back into place when rubbed against the nap. The outer coat is coarse, moderately long, and full, either straight or with a wave. The undercoat is soft and dense, although it is often less dense during the summer months or in warmer climates. Hair on the face and muzzle is short and fine. The backs of the legs are feathered all the way down. The tail is covered with long dense hair. Excess hair may be trimmed for neatness. Whiskers need not be trimmed.

Color is secondary to type, structure, and soundness. Recognized Newfoundland colors are black, brown, gray, and white and black.
Solid Colors--Blacks, Browns, and Grays may appear as solid colors or solid colors with white at any, some, or all, of the following locations: chin, chest, toes, and tip of tail. Any amount of white found at these locations is typical and is not penalized. Also typical are a tinge of bronze on a black or gray coat and lighter furnishings on a brown or gray coat.
Landseer--White base coat with black markings. Typically, the head is solid black, or
black with white on the muzzle, with or without a blaze. There is a separate black saddle and black on the rump extending onto a white tail.
Markings, on either Solid Colors or Landseers, might deviate considerably from those
described and should be penalized only to the extent of the deviation. Clear white or
white with minimal ticking is preferred. Beauty of markings should be considered only when comparing dogs of otherwise comparable quality and never at the expense of type, structure and soundness.
Disqualifications-- Any colors or combinations of colors not specifically described are disqualified.

The Newfoundland in motion has good reach, strong drive, and gives the impression of effortless power. His gait is smooth and rhythmic, covering the maximum amount of ground with the minimum number of steps. Forelegs and hind legs travel straight forward. As the dog's speed increases, the legs tend toward single tracking. When moving, a slight roll of the skin is characteristic of the breed. Essential to good movement is the balance of correct front and rear assemblies.

Sweetness of temperament is the hallmark of the Newfoundland; this is the most important single characteristic of the breed.

Any colors or combinations of colors not specifically described are disqualified.

Approved May 8, 1990
Effective June 28, 1990
1990© Newfoundland Club of America, Inc.



by Suzanne S. Jones

Many skin problems are caused by improper grooming, in other words, a well groomed dog is a healthy dog. Mats collect dirt and lead to hot spots which smell. A matted dog is not pleasant to touch or live with. Regular grooming will give you early warning to fleas and ticks and keep down the hair in the house. In addition, a well groomed dog get lots of attention when in public. Dogs may be bathed as often as necessary provided you use a good dog shampoo. Remember, when a dog is being shown, they are bathed once a week or more! We've found that dogs usually require more baths during the summer than the winter with the heaviest grooming required during the "spring shed".

Bathing a dog is much easier if you have first combed the entire coat, removing all loose hairs and mats. The two basic tools we use are a rake and fine tooth comb. The rake removes large clumps of hair while the fine tooth comb "fine tunes" by removing any final loose hair. To begin grooming, start with the rake. Push up the hair on the leg with your hand and comb down pulling small amounts of hair at a time. By working up you are starting with the shorter hair on the legs and pulling the longer body hair down. This way you are always combing through already-combed hair. If you come to a mat, hold the mat between your fingers, close to the skin (to minimize pulling) and comb through small amounts of the mat until you have worked the mat out. It seems as though mats always form behind the ears, under the front legs, inside the back legs and in the long hair on the front and back legs (furnishings). If you take long walks in the woods, check the furnishings often as they collect burrs and brambles. Once your dog is combed out, you will find the bathing process easier.

As a precaution, we use flea shampoo year round. Mix your shampoo with warm water, according to the directions, in a small container. We mix about 1/4 cup of shampoo to a quart of water. A small sponge works well to apply the shampoo. Thoroughly wet the dog with warm water, starting at the head and working your way back. Once the dog is wet, apply the shampoo in the same manner , starting at the head and working your way back and down. If you tilt the dogs head back you wont get shampoo in the eyes. Pay particular attention to the tail area as this is where most fleas love to hide. Work the shampoo in with your sponge, getting the suds all the way to the skin. Don't forget to wash the bottom of the feet. The feet can collect all kinds of debris which, if not removed, will cause problems.

Now that your dog is soaped head to toe to tail its time to rinse. Again, tilt the head back and remove the shampoo the same way you applied it, from head to tail. Rinse, rinse, rinse, rinse then rinse some more. Any shampoo left on may cause skin irritations, itchiness and a greasy feel to the coat. Rinse until the water runs clean then rinse again. Make sure you rinse under the tummy, under the front arms, and between the rear legs. Then stand back and let your dog have a few good shakes. If the dogs coat seems dry, we follow with a creme rinse, diluting it with water, working it into the coat, especially the furnishings, then rinse again.

To dry your dog, there are many different techniques you may use. Towels will quickly remove most of the excess moisture making the actual drying process easier. Human hair dryers, dog "blaters", stand dryers, or a canister type vacuum with the hose plugged into the exhaust port all work well. Make sure you are very careful if you use a human hair dryer as they get very hot and can burn a dogs skin. As you dry, comb through the dog again removing any hair the bath has worked loose. When the dog is dry, give him a big hug, a cookie and tell him how pretty he looks (and how wet he made you!)


Crate Training

by Lisa Allen-VanCouvering

Your breeder strongly recommended you purchase a crate for a puppy and told you why. Even though you understand that it is for the safety of your dog you still aren't quite sure you want your dog in a cage. Firstly, it is not a cage. It is a crate, a kennel, a little house, a room, a bed, whatever you want to call it - anything but a cage. A cage is something that animals are never let out of. A crate is used for the safety and comfort of a dog. When your puppy is not in his crate, notice where he chooses to sleep: under the coffee or dining room table; in the little space between your couch and the wall; in a comer somewhere out of the way. Why? Because your dog is a "den dwelling animal". Dens provide safety and solace, and your dog will come to think of his crate as such.

1) A crate is your dogs seat belt.

a) A crated dog cannot interfere with your driving.

b) In an accident, your dog needs something to prevent it from becoming a flying object.

c) A crate keeps your dog confined should your doors pop open.

2) A crate is your puppy's bed where he will sleep securely during the night, safe and sound.

3) A crate is where your puppy will stay when unattended and in the house. This prevents puppy from destroying and soiling in your house; consuming noxious plants or garbage and escaping out the house through a forgotten, open door.

4) A crate is a safe haven where puppy can escape to when the world is just too much (kids, cats, illness, etc.)

5) A crate is NOT to be used for punishment - EVER!

Purchase your crate before bringing your puppy home. Place the crate in an area where the family spends most of their time like the kitchen or the family room. The goal being to confine the puppy without isolating him from his family. At night, it can be consoling for the pup to sleep in his crate placed in a bedroom of one of his family members. Once again, the pack, den dwelling animal instinct being satisfied. Encourage the pup to enter his crate by rewarding him each time with a small edible treat (remember, a growing pup is always watching his weight). Favorite toys in the crate will also ease the transition of acceptance.

Feeding a pup while crated will further enhance the feeling of comfort and security. Make sure that the puppy is allowed to relieve himself outside before any crating, especially at bedtime. Do rush puppy out first thing in the morning. Remember, he is just a baby and will have to go out to potty early. And, don't worry about the pup when you hear him complaining about his new confinement. Do not rush to console him because that is exactly what he wants you to do. You will be encouraging him to continue barking and he will be effectively training you to rush to his rescue !

There are many different kinds of crates and it can be very confusing when trying to pick one out. Don't buy a small crate because your puppy will be very large at the end of his first year. Buy a crate that will fit a full grown Newf. The crate should be large enough that, when full grown, your dog can stand up, turn around and lie down comfortably. Do not buy a plastic crate. While they are easy to clean, they are also easy to chew and do not provide enough ventilation. A sturdy wire crate with good door latches is your best bet. Be advised though, a good crate is expensive ($100 - $200) but it is an investment for the life of your dog that is well worth it.



by Tracy Warncke

A Newfoundland puppy needs to spend time outside exercising and exploring his new kingdom. As he grows, this circle of exploration increases, so too, do the possible dangers. Cars, garbage cans, children, wild animals, extreme heat and cold, and chemicals are a few examples of deadly encounters your pup may face if left to roam. For these, and many more reasons, an outside home should be constructed. Many factors should be considered when building a home for your new four-footed friend. This issue we will be start with the basics, location and fencing.

The major decision to made is: do we fence in the whole yard or just a portion. Ideally, a fenced in yard with a run inside is best. (When we use the term "run", we don't mean a wire strung from tree to tree, we mean an enclosure with four sides.) This way, when you are home, you can supervise your pups play in the yard. He can be taught not to dig in the flower beds, chew the vinyl siding, or the garden hose. When you are away, he can be safely placed in the run, away from all the hazards of the yard.

As with any type of construction, you should think about the weather. Are your normal temperatures hot, warm or cold? Do you have torrential rains? Blizzards? Which direction are the prevailing winds? These factors all enter into the placement of your pups run. If you live in the southern climates, you should consider an area that gets the most shade year round. If you live in the northern climates, where snow abounds, perhaps an area that is shaded during the summer months only. This would allow the sun to help melt the snow during the winter. No matter what your climate, there should always be a part of the run with shade. If you have no trees, this may be accomplished by covering the run with a tarp or sunblocking run cover. Try to plan the run around a big rock or tree. This breaks the monotony for the pup and gives him something fun to play with. Try to avoid square shapes as these tend to encourage "circling".

Next, give some thought to your neighbors (if you have any) and deliverymen. What will the run look like from their point of view? Will the pup be able to see them coming and going? Will this cause the pup to start barking? Will their children harass the pup? Will the run block access to the oil-fill pipe or the electric meter? How about the septic system? Giving a little thought to what your neighbors will see and hear may help "keep the peace" in the neighborhood.

Now that you have established the area, what about fencing? Stockade is so limiting, chainlink is too "security", picket isn't high enough. What about a combination of fences! Use stockade to give your back yard privacy, chainlink for the run and picket for the front yard. If using any type of fence (like 3 rail) with gaps between the boards, attach weld wire to cover the gaps. Think about where you will need gates and their size. Two strategically placed 8-10 ft. gates will allow nearly all types of trucks and equipment access to your yard. Whenever possible, use self-closing gates that open into your yard. This will help prevent your dogs escape because a gate was open and also keep your dog from pushing the gate open!

The size of the run greatly depends on the amount of time your pup will spend in it. The more time, the larger the run, the less time, the smaller. Minimum size, for proper exercise, is 12 ft. x 12 ft. Under no circumstances should the run be less than 6 ft. tall. While most Newfs are not "jumpers", past experience has shown that under certain circumstances a Newf will clear a 5 ft. fence. The first Newfoundland to receive the Ken-L Ration Dog Hero of the Year Award, Dirigos Magnificent Villa, CD, weighed 15 pounds and cleared a 5 ft. fence to save her "child", Andrea (Newf Tide, Spring 1984). My first Newf was half way over her 5 ft. run when our son fell an cut his face!

Should you decide to fence your yard before building a run, there are two very important rules to remember: NEVER put your pup in the yard with his collar on. Collars can easily become tangled and your pup may strangle himself. Also, NEVER leave your dog alone in a yard with less than 6 ft. high fencing. You never know when the neighborhood stray may bound over the fence or your dog might get into something he shouldn't!


First Aid

by Tracy Warncke

This issue we are going to discuss some the basics of canine first aid and building your canine first aid kit. We've asked fellow Newf owner and Veterinarian Clyde Dunphy to run us through the Know-How!

The simplest way to remember whether or not to call your vet is to think "If it was me, would I call my doctor". If the answer is yes, call your vet! The same basic rules for human first aid apply to dogs. Be as observant as possible and make notes. Your dog cant speak so you must be both his eyes and voice to help the doctor diagnose the problem. "He doesn't feel good" wont help the vet, but -- "he's been off his feed for a day, is drinking tons of water, urinating a lot and has a temperature of 102.5" will give your vet more to go on.

This also applies to trauma. A frantic call saying "he's bleeding" means little or nothing. On the other hand "He was attacked by another dog and is bleeding heavily from a puncture wound on his left flank. His eyes are glazed and he's panting heavily" tells another story. With a little training from your vet you and he can work hand-in-hand to diagnose your dog.

Lets start with the basics.

INJURY: No matter what the injury, approach your dog with caution. A dog that normally will not bite, may bite when in pain. To be safe, use a muzzle. The most common is one made from the leg of a pair of stockings. Wrap it around the muzzle starting from underneath, around the top then back underneath. Pull snug then tie behind the head. A word of caution - do not apply a muzzle if the dog has any injury to the mouth or nose.

BLEEDING: Controlling hemorrhage is important if excessive bleeding is present. It is best controlled by a pressure bandage. A pressure bandage is a clean towel (or other clean material) applied directly to the wound with slight pressure. If the injury is on a limb you can use a tourniquet. Remember to release the tourniquet every couple of minutes to allow blood flow to the limb.

SHOCK: Signs of shock are muscular weakness, rapid heart rate, pale mucus membranes, rapid shallow breathing, reduced pulse rate, and blood pressure. To treat shock, keep the dog warm (wrap in a blanket) and quiet, and control any hemorrhage.Injury, bleeding and shock are very serious and after taking the initial basic steps call your vet and transport immediately.

You might want to try putting all your dog first-aid supplies in a plastic container with a tight fitting lid. Write your vets phone number on the top with a permanent marker so you wont waste any time looking for it in an emergency. Your first-aid kit could contain

Rectal Thermometer: Normal rectal temperature is 101-102 degrees.

Peroxide: For flushing wounds, can be used to induce vomiting. Pour 1-2 tablespoons in the back of the throat, repeat until dog vomits.

Kaopectate or Pepto-Bismol: 1 teaspoon per 25 pounds. Repeat every 4-6 hours. Tablets can be used following adult dosage for a 100 pound Newfoundland.

Murine, Murine +, or Boric Acid Solution: Flush eyes as needed.

Neosporin: Antibiotic ointment for scrapes and minor wounds such as tick removal sites.

Aspirin: Dosage of one tablet per 25 pounds, maximum of 3 tablet s every 4-6 hours. DO NOT use Tylenol, Advil or other anti-inflammatories as they are toxic to a dogs liver and kidneys.

Benadryl: Use for allergic reactions, allergies, ho spots. Dosage is 25 mg capsule per 15-20 pounds. For a Newfoundland that is 100-140 pounds, try 100 mg (can be increased if needed). Repeat every 4-6 hours as needed.

Old pair of pantyhose: Makes a great muzzle.

Leash and Collar: They just might come in handy.

Clean bath towel: Good for pressure bandages.

Ace-type bandage: Can be used to hold pressure bandage in place, split broken limbs.

There are other items that should be included depending on what part of the country you live in. Speak with your vet and find out what he would like you to include. As with most medical items, keep out of reach of children.

Remember, you and your vet are the first line of defense when it come to the health of your dog. Work together - it will benefit your four-footed family member.


Fun Stuff

Most of our articles have dealt with the more serious side of raising your puppy - UNTIL NOW! This issue, we are going to talk about FUN STUFF you can do with your puppy!

Much like a child, your puppy needs to have some fun! How about celebrating his six-month birthday. Invite your family (yes, they will think you are not quite all there, but - why not!). Make him a cake from cottage cheese or yogurt surrounded by puppy cookies. The candle can be a rolled rawhide stick or one of the "flavored" jerky-type sticks found in the grocery store pet section. Sing him/her Happy Birthday and give him presents - a new rubber ball or fuzzy chew toy. Hold the whole party outside in his run or in the house on the easiest to clean floor. Cut the cake and put a small piece in his bowl. End the celebration with a phone call to your local training school enrolling him in obedience classes.

Attend your kennel clubs Halloween party. You and your dog can dress up. Yes, most Newfs will tolerate a costume - just check out the decorative carting section of the National Specialty report in the last issue of Newf Tide. Be careful that the costume does not have any sharp corners or points that can hurt your dog. Try painting a black Newf with a "skunk stripe" made with white water-based craft paint or use vegetable oil and dust with cornstarch or flour down the middle of its back and tail - imagine the "aroma" of a 125-pound skunk! Landseers can wear a surgeons glove blown up and tied around their middle and go as a miniature Holstein cow! Grays could be an elephant or rhinoceros (make the trunk/home out of a stuffed gray stocking), and browns can double as reindeer (antlers are readily purchased from catalogs). The dogs will love all the attention they get!

If you teach your dog to speak on command, he can "sing" Christmas carols with you. "Take and hold" can be used to deliver carefully selected packages to your family and friends (hopefully they do not mind slightly soggy wrapping paper). Instead of making each trip to the beach a training trip, take your dog swimming - just because! While most Newfs just love any opportunity to swim, training can become somewhat boring. The opportunity to swim without having to retrieve a bumper or tow a boat will be a welcome change. Take him for rides to nowhere. Dogs will rapidly associate car rides with non-fun if they only go for rides to the vet or training classes. Remember though, cars can rapidly heat up so make sure you do not leave your dog in the car unattended for long and that you park in the shade wherever possible.

We all know that we are supposed to keep our dogs at their proper weight, but a cheeseburger and a couple of french fries at your local fast food restaurant will not hurt, upon occasion. When you place your order, get a plain cheeseburger for your dog and feed it to him in small pieces. This makes the burger last longer than a Newf s usual "one bite and its gone!" Easy on the fries - they contain a lot of oil.

If your yard is fully fenced, try playing hide and seek. Put your dog on a sit or down stay, then hide! Call his name until he finds you. Once he does "seek" you, give him the biggest hug you can. You would be surprised at just how fast they learn to find you!

During those hot summer days, set up the sprinkler and let him play in it. A kiddie pool will cool those hot tired feet and can be great fun when equipped with "pool toys."

And, speaking of toys - buy him a new toy. The favorite around here seems to be soft stuffed spider with two-foot long legs. The dogs pick the spider up by the body and shake their heads - the spiders legs whip around and entice someone else to try to get the spider. Amazingly the spider still has all eight legs! When toy shopping, examine the toys carefully to make sure there are no small parts that will be able to lodge in your dogs throat. Buy balls big enough so they cannot be swallowed.

Remember, a little fun goes a long way.


Health Care

by Tracy Warncke

You've waited and waited and the time to bring your new puppy home is rapidly approaching. CALL YOUR VETERINARIAN, don't wait until you pick your puppy up!

Your veterinarian is your first line of defense for your puppys good health. If your vet knows you are getting a puppy they can offer invaluable pre-puppy advice such as how to puppy proof your home, flea and tick control, various forms of heartworm preventative and vaccination and worming schedules. He will also tell you what information you need to get from your breeder, in addition to the vaccination and worming medication already given, to help keep your puppy on the track to good health.

Since many breeders give you a time limit to take your puppy to the vet for that first exam, read your contract carefully and make sure you schedule your first appointment accordingly. Give your pup a day or so to settle in then take him in for the all important first exam. Make sure you take all your puppys papers with you so your vet can record all vaccinations and wormings already given. After a thorough exam (eyes, ears, teeth, coat, weight, heart, gastrointestinal to name a few!) your vet will let you know when and what the next appoint will entail. A puppy usually sees the doctor 3-4 times from the time you take him home until age 6 months. This ensures that he is growing properly (appropriate weight), is parasite free (no intestinal worms) and is up-to-date on his inoculations.

To make this experience enjoyable for your pup, take lots of tiny little treats. Give them to all members of the veterinary team to give to the pup. Let them make a big deal over him and tell him what a good pup he is (who can resist a 9-10 week old Newfoundland pup!). Ask them if you can stop by from time to time for a quick visit so your pup will begin to love going to the doctor! In between doctor's visits, keep a list of questions you would like to ask with your pups health records. This way, you wont get home and say "I forgot to ask...."

Try to keep your pup away from other dogs for a few weeks. Your pup's immunities are still developing and you don't know what ailment another dog might have. Proper socialization need not be interrupted if you are careful about where you go and what dogs you meet. Most puppy kindergarten classes require that you bring your puppy's shot record with you so that they are assured your puppy is getting his shots and that the spread of disease is minimized. In other words, don't take your 2 month old puppy to a dog show!

Once your pup has received his permanent shots (usually around 6 months of age), your vet will want to see him at least once a year. This yearly exam is essential. All booster shots will be given along with a thorough exam. Don't think that you can wait a month or two past the due date to get that parvo, rabies or distemper booster. These diseases still appear and are life-threatening! Here in the northeast rabies is on the rise and we still have outbreaks of parvo. Yearly examinations also detect any changes that may need treatment as your dog gets older.

Don't be afraid to call you vet should you feel something isn't right. That's what he's there for! When you do call, don't simply say "Puppy doesn't feel good." The more specific you are the more it will help your vet diagnose the problem. If your pup has gotten into something he shouldn't (he dragged the old turkey carcass out of the trash or he drank out of the bucket that had some old motor oil in it) call the vet immediately. Many substance are harmful to animals and immediate treatment is necessary.

Remember the old adages - An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure! Better safe than sorry! They certainly do apply to appointments for yearly checkups.



by Wilma Lemire

Housebreaking is not difficult if you follow a couple of very basic rules. The most important are "when in doubt - take them out," "praise, praise, praise," and "be consistent."

Let's start with "take them out." All dogs will give you some kind of sign that they have to go out. All you have to do is figure it out. Typically, you will see circling and sniffing. Once the signs are given, immediately scoop the pup up and take the puppy out. Mind you, you have just interrupted the puppy's train of thought and it will take a few minutes for puppy to remember what he was doing. Many times we bring them in too early only to have them potty in the house. Give them plenty of time.

When you see the signs, give the deed a name. "Go out, go potty, and hurry up" all come to mind. Be consistent and use the same name every time. After all, when you are teaching "sit" you use the same name each and every time.

Once the deed is done "praise, praise, praise," then praise some more. This helps to get your point across. Never severely reprimand the puppy for going potting in the house. Remember - all dogs give a sign - you missed it. If caught in the act in the house, say "NO! Outside!" and pick the pup up and take it out.

Rain, snow, sleet, hail, hurricane or dark of night - never ignore a sign, not even once. This will only confuse the puppy. Avoiding mixed signals reinforces what you are teaching. In other words, consistency is the key.

When do puppies have to go potty? Immediately upon awakening (even after naps), when excited (like when it sees you after an absence), after eating or drinking, after playing, and just because. Yes, all the time. This is where "when in doubt" comes in. Don't give your pup a chance to fail.

Here are some additional tips that will make housetraining a little easier:

1. Feed you pup at the same time every day.

2. Make notes as to the actual time when puppy goes potty. This will help you to see just how often you need to take puppy out.

3. Limit water before bedtime.

4. Keep the water bucket outside, which will help reinforce "outside."

5. Never leave puppy unattended in the house - this is asking for an accident.

6. If puppy is outside during the day, don't come straight into the house when you bring him/her in. Typically that little walk will generate an "accident" upon coming in. Spend a little time outside before entering the house.

7. Don't expect your puppy to be able to hold it for long. It is unfair to leave puppy in a crate for 3 hours or so during the day, especially when you first bring her home.

8. It always takes longer to train for urination.

9. Remember to always clean up after your dog and to take plastics bags with you when you go for a walk.

When puppy goes potty:

...when puppy wakes up

... after eating

... after playing

... after a nap

...a whole bunch of time in between!


Homebuilding and Floor Coverings

by Tracy Warncke

HOMEBUILDING: To begin, you must think about temperature. Just how cold or hot does it get? If it gets very hot, think about adding a porch so your Newf can take advantage of the summer breeze. Real cold - an insulated dog house is answer.

Now for the size. A dog house should be high enough for a dog to stand up without bumping its head. Length and width should be slightly longer than the dog from nose to rump. Basically, a 4 ft. high x 4 ft. long x 4 ft. wide structure is just fine for a Newf. These figures make it easy when planning for building materials and minimize leftovers. BE FOREWARNED AND PLAN AHEAD!!!! If you've decided Newfs are the breed for you and plan to get another in the future, consider building a double-occupancy house. A "fake" wall is easily added which can be removed later.

Plywood and 2 x 4s are the basic building materials required. Pressure-treated lumber is fine for fence posts but should not be used for dog houses as it is treated with poisons. Many people use "Texture 1-11", a plywood with grooves every 6 inches or so running the length of the sheet. This dresses up the outside eliminating the need for exterior finishes (shingles or clapboard) and helps the water run off the roof.

Cinder blocks work well as a foundation, which may or may not be placed in a shallow trench. A foundation helps to prevent insect and water damage and helps to prevent settling and digging. If you are insulating your dog house make sure that there is no way your dog can get to the insulation. If ingested, insulation can do major damage to a dogs internal organs. Plywood over the insulation on the inside does the trick. Check the inside and outside of the house to make sure there are no nails sticking out.

Many people recommend lift-off or hinged roofs for easy cleaning. Door shape is up to your own individual tastes but must be large enough for the dog to enter with a slight duck of the head. Too big an opening allows rain, snow and wind to enter negating the purpose of the house in the first place.

Last but perhaps the most important is the placement of the finished dog house. The dog house should never be placed on the outside of any fence or run. This will allow stray dogs to use the house as a springboard to enter the run. Your dog house shouldn't be placed against the fence because believe it or not, Newfoundlands can and do jump or climb! The safest place is in the center of the run. This also adds something for the dog to run around for enjoyment. Many times I see my own dogs playing sneak-a-peek around the dog house. Placing a dog house in the center of a run also affords shade at varying locations throughout the day.

FLOOR COVERINGS: Make no mistake, that lovely grass that surrounds your dogs house will be beaten into a muddy mess in just a few short months. Once this happens you must decide how to keep your dog clean. The most economical floor covering is what New Englanders call washed pea stone. This is a washed (smooth no sharp edges) stone, in varying colors, slightly bigger than a pea but not larger than a grape. These are the rocks that are removed from the screening process when grading sand. Depending on your current type of soil, 1 cubic yard (1-1/4 ton) will cover a 10 ft. x 10 ft. area about 3 inches deep. FAIR WARNING! You will have to replace the stone as it will disappear into the ground. Its a never-ending battle and we often wonder just where it all goes! You may want to line the outside of the run with telephone poles or garden timbers to keep the stone inside the run.

Materials to avoid are: pine bark (most are treated with chemicals to prevent decomposition), gravel (usually has sharp edges), and stone dust (sticks to everything).

Any dog would appreciate something nice and soft to sleep on inside his house. Old blankets, straw or carpet samples (those 2 ft. x 3 ft. pieces from the discontinued carpet books) will do just fine. Indoor/outdoor and stain resistant carpets should be avoided as they are treated with chemicals that, if urinated on, will emit toxic gasses.


Introducing Your New Puppy to Your Old Dog

By JoAnn Wood

So, you want to get a puppy but you already have an adult dog - GREAT! Here's some hints that may help with your introduction.

When you first bring puppy home, try to have someone with you to help out and choose a room that has a washable surface. Allow the puppy to sniff the area. These new smells will tell him there is another dog(s) that already lives here and may help to calm him somewhat.

Time is an important factor to consider when bringing in a new puppy. You may want to plan ahead and make the introduction on a long weekend or when you have some extra vacation time coming. This will also make the puppy's transition into your home easier by starting him off on a schedule.

Let the resident dog(s) in, but don't let them rush to the pup as this may frighten him. In the case of more than one dog, let them in one at a time. They need to sniff - this is very important. If your puppy is very submissive, he may roll over exposing his belly and he may urinate. DO NOT chastise the pup, this is normal behavior. He's telling the older dog, "I know you're the boss". Once the initial greetings have been made, allow everyone to relax. Pay attention to the older dog, and not too much to the pup for the next few days. Don't expect all dogs to readily accept any new critters immediately, remember they also have feelings and may be thinking "How dare you, I'm all you need".

One thing to remember is a puppy wants to have a K-9 friend, but because puppies play very hard and can be very fresh, you must protect your older dog from being "overwhelmed". Know your dog. You may want to feed puppy in his crate (a good reason to purchase one!). Allow each dog to have time away from the other. While they are together and playing, if the older dog gives the puppy that "look" along with a little lip curl and snaps or growls - don't be too quick to step in - he's only reminding puppy to "mind your manners".

Make sure to spend extra time with your adult dog. Take him with you more often on errands, talk to him more, give him longer walks, etc. This special time will pay off in the long run.

Some dogs may take a little longer to accept the newcomer, but if you've done your homework (training) properly, your adult dog will soon be happy to accept a new puppy. You must be aware that, like people, not everyone gets along, personalities are different. After sufficient time has gone by, if this is the case, please remember that the breeder may know of a family where the puppy will fit in perfectly. Maybe the timing is just not right.

Most Newfoundland are more than willing to accept "one of their own". We have a very special breed and to see puppy and adult curled up and sleeping side-by-side is a very heart-warming feeling. So, get your camera ready for those special times!! They may only happen once and puppies grow so fast you don't want to miss a single thing!! Good luck and happy intro's!!.


Puppy Grooming

by Peggy Helming

To begin with, your puppy has had his toenails trimmed 9-10 times, yes folks, once a week from birth until you took him home. This should continue weekly for the life of your pup. From birth until 10 weeks we used human toenail clippers. From 10 weeks to 4 months we use human toenail clippers. From 4 months on we use regular dog nail clippers. Make sure your blades are sharp for quick, safe cutting. We replace ours often! In addition, your puppy was bathed and dried before he went to the vet's office for his final checkup. Your puppy has also become accustomed to being handled many times by various people throughout the daily chores.

To continue this training we recommend you brush your puppy daily. Don't worry, we're not talking about all out grooming. A slicker brush will do quite nicely. Make sure you have all your tools handy before you start. Although we prefer to use a grooming table (it saves your back), you may lie down on the floor with your pup and speak in a calm soothing voice while petting or rubbing his tummy. Once the pup settles down, gently begin brushing with the slicker brush. Don't push too hard as the fine teeth can scratch the skin. Remember to be especially gentle when brushing the hair on the inside of the rear legs and tummy. After the slicker, use a stainless steel comb and go over the pup completely. The comb will get in all the nooks and crannies. In the beginning these sessions should only last a couple of minutes, ending with big hugs and a cookie. Gradually increase the amount of time you spend brushing.

At the end of each session, stop brushing but continue to talk and pet. Gently pick up each foot and rub and gently squeeze each pad on each foot. At the end of a week, have someone pet the pup, while you talk and carefully trim the nails. Start by just clipping off a little at a time and "shave" each nail until you see the "half- moon" of healthy nail tissue. We always have the styptic (powdered form) ready just in case we cut the nail too short and nick the blood vessel that runs inside the nail ("quick"). Should you "quick" the pup don't panic, you will only instill your fear in the pup. Speak in a soothing voice while dipping the nail in the styptic. Once your pup settles down, tell him what a good boy he is. Don't forget the hugs and cookies. Small cookies - remember, a growing pup is always watching his weight.

By using this system, we've found that we've actually taught the pup several things. First is down. If you tell the pup down each time you start a session, before too long, they've learned what the word means. Because it's associated with wonderful petting and cookies, they learn it quick. Second is that they can trust you to help the "hurt" feel better. They don't realize that you're the one that "quicked" them, only that you hugged and loved them to make them feel better.



by Tracy Warncke

Your breeder stressed that you must keep your puppys run/yard clean. Not once a week or once in a while, but every day. Did your breeder tell you to take a plastic bag with you every time you walk the dog? Were you shown the "insert, grab, reverse and tie" method? "WHAT ARE YOU TALKING ABOUT?" you ask? POOP! Yes, dog poop!

Sanitation is one of the most important factors in keeping your dog healthy. It is also a subject that many people don't want to talk about, but we are going to discuss it in this column. Improper sanitation may spread: intestinal parasites, which, if severe enough may kill a dog; viruses; and draw flies not to mention, stinks and is just plain unsightly.

Most intestinal parasites are spread by a dog coming in contact with contaminated ground. Eggs from the parasites are deposited with the feces and may live for several months before finding a new host. Failure to remove feces daily or twice daily dramatically increases the likelihood that the eggs from an infected dog will find their way into the ground. Your dog comes along and sniffs the ground coming in contact with the eggs and a few weeks later - you guessed it - your dog is infected.

Viruses such as canine parvovirus, corona, distemper, and infectious canine hepatitis are shed into the feces. Most can live for months just waiting for a dog to infect. Some are deadly, others self-limiting, all are preventable. Preventable through proper sanitation and vaccination.

Failure to "scoop the poop" draws flies. If your dog is in the vicinity, the flies will eventually find your dog. Noses and ears are their favorite landing spots. A dog whose ears are being attacked by flies will shake his head frequently to remove the offending pests. This may lead to an ear flap hematoma (collection of blood in the tissues of the ear flap). Surgery is usually required to drain the excess blood to prevent scarring and deformation of the ear flap.

Noses, on the other hand may be bitten until bloodied. Most dog will rub their noses on the ground or paw their noses to relieve the biting. If a dog rubs its nose on the ground it may be scratched and end up infected necessitating a trip to the vet. Constant pawing of the face may lead to scratches from the nails. Both lead to eventual hair loss and possible scarring.

Remember the last time you stepped in dog poop? Ill bet you had a few choice comments for the irresponsible dog owner who allowed their dog to make its deposit and failed to clean it up. Be a responsible dog owner. Carry a plastic bag (bread bags work very well) with you when ever you leave your property. If your dog should make a deposit here's a quick and easy way to remove the evidence.

Put your hand inside the bag and pick up the pile. Pull your hand back through the opening. The poop is now inside the bag and has not come in contact with your hand. Tie the bag in a not and deposit in the nearest waste receptacle.

I usually carry two bags - one for me and one for any owner we meet just in case they "forgot" theirs.

A bucket filled with bleach and water will readily disinfect your cleanup tools. Make sure you empty the bucket in a safe place and never leave it where the dogs might drink from it. If you should experience recurring problems with intestinal parasites, talk to your veterinarian about a sanitation program. He may recommend treating your run/yard with any number of products available that will eradicate your problem.

Finally, regular scooping will alert you to any changes in your dog's bowel habits, which could be cause for concern. When you call your vet to tell him your dog isn't feeling well, the first questions he will ask are:

1. Is he eating and drinking?

2. Does he have a temperature?

3. Is there any sign of vomiting or diarrhea?

4. What is the consistency and color of the stools?

Happy Scooping!

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site updated January 1, 2014